NORINCO Type 85-II MBT

Development :

Early in 1995 NORINCO (China North Industries Corporation) revealed that it was marketing a new version of its Type 85 MBT called Type 85-III.

This is a further development of the earlier Type 85-II (armed with a 105 mm rifled gun and a four-man crew) and the Type 85-IIM (armed with a 125 mm smoothbore gun and a three-man crew). The latter is also being manufactured in Pakistan as the Type 85-IIAP, which was first observed in March 1993.

It is understood that some subsystems of this tank are also used in the Type 90-II covered in the previous entry.

Description

The overall layout is virtually the same as that of the Type 85-II, covered in the following entry, with the main improvements being summarised as follows:

  • Installation of a new power pack consisting of a transversely mounted V-type diesel engine developing 1,000 hp which, with a combat weight of 41.7 tonnes gives a power-to-weight ratio of 23.98 hp/tonne and a maximum road speed of up to 65 km/h
  • The complete power pack is integrated and can be removed and replaced in the field in less than 40 minutes
  • The transmission has been improved and now has hydraulic control and the driver can select either automatic, semi-automatic or manual modes of operation
  • The composite armour panels on the turret front and hull front provide a very high degree of protection against both kinetic and chemical energy attack. The hull front armour is fixed while the turret armour can be replaced with a different armour package if required
  • Commander and gunner have roof-mounted stabilised (in two planes) day/image intensification (second-generation) night sights and the computerised fire-control system allows stationary or moving targets to be engaged with a high first round hit probability when the vehicle is moving
  • Main armament comprises a 125 mm smoothbore gun fed by an automatic loader. This is believed to be similar to that fitted to the Russian T-72/T-80 MBTs and has allowed the crew to be reduced to three men. Maximum quoted rate of fire is 8 rds/min and a total of 42 rounds of separate loading ammunition is carried.

    The 125 mm gun fires three types of 125 mm ammunition, APFSDS, HEAT and HE-FRAG with the APFSDS having a muzzle velocity of 1,730 m/s and penetrating 460 mm of rolled homogeneous armour at a range of 2,000 m. Standard equipment includes a collective NBC system, fire/explosion detection/suppression system, bank of smoke grenade launchers mounted either side of the turret and the ability to lay a smoke screen by injecting diesel fuel into the exhaust. The Type 85-III MBT has more recently been offered fitted with a Global Positioning System. To extend the operational range of the Type 85-III MBT, drum-type long-range fuel tanks can be fitted at the rear.

    Variants

    No variants have been announced although NORINCO has stated that the Type 85-III MBT can be modified into a command post vehicle.

    SPECIFICATIONS :

    Crew: 3
    Combat weight: 41,700 kg
    Power-to-weight ratio: 23.98 hp/tonne
    Length:
    (gun forward) 10.428 m*
    (gun rear) 9.508 m*
    Width: 3.40 m
    Height: 2.20 m
    Max road speed: 65 km/h
    Max range: 600 km (approx)
    Fording: 5 m
    Engine: V-type diesel developing 1,000 hp
    Transmission: planetary with 7 forward and 1 reverse gears
    Armament:
    (main) 1 x 125 mm gun
    (coaxial) 1 x 7.62 mm MG
    (anti-aircraft) 1 x 12.7 mm MG
    Smoke grenade dischargers: 2 x 6
    Smoke laying capability: yes
    Ammunition:
    (main) 42 x 125 mm
    Turret traverse: 360, powered/manual
    Gun stabiliser:
    (vertical) yes
    (horizontal) yes
    Rangefinding device: yes, laser
    NBC system: yes
    Night vision equipment: yes
    *Including long-range fuel tanks at hull rear.

    COMPANY NAME : Chinese state factories Enquiries to China North Industries Corporation

    NORINCO Type 85-III MBT

    Development

    Early in 1995 NORINCO (China North Industries Corporation) revealed that it was marketing a new version of its Type 85 MBT called Type 85-III.
    This is a further development of the earlier Type 85-II (armed with a 105 mm rifled gun and a four-man crew) and the Type 85-IIM (armed with a 125 mm smoothbore gun and a three-man crew). The latter is also being manufactured in Pakistan as the Type 85-IIAP, which was first observed in March 1993. It is understood that some subsystems of this tank are also used in the Type 90-II covered in the previous entry.

    Description

    The overall layout is virtually the same as that of the Type 85-II, covered in the following entry, with the main improvements being summarised as follows:

    (1) Installation of a new power pack consisting of a transversely mounted V-type diesel engine developing 1,000 hp which, with a combat weight of 41.7 tonnes gives a power-to-weight ratio of 23.98 hp/tonne and a maximum road speed of up to 65 km/h
    (2) The complete power pack is integrated and can be removed and replaced in the field in less than 40 minutes
    (3) The transmission has been improved and now has hydraulic control and the driver can select either automatic, semi-automatic or manual modes of operation
    (4) The composite armour panels on the turret front and hull front provide a very high degree of protection against both kinetic and chemical energy attack. The hull front armour is fixed while the turret armour can be replaced with a different armour package if required
    (5) Commander and gunner have roof-mounted stabilised (in two planes) day/image intensification (second-generation) night sights and the computerised fire-control system allows stationary or moving targets to be engaged with a high first round hit probability when the vehicle is moving
    (6) Main armament comprises a 125 mm smoothbore gun fed by an automatic loader. This is believed to be similar to that fitted to the Russian T-72/T-80 MBTs and has allowed the crew to be reduced to three men. Maximum quoted rate of fire is 8 rds/min and a total of 42 rounds of separate loading ammunition is carried.

    The 125 mm gun fires three types of 125 mm ammunition, APFSDS, HEAT and HE-FRAG with the APFSDS having a muzzle velocity of 1,730 m/s and penetrating 460 mm of rolled homogeneous armour at a range of 2,000 m. Standard equipment includes a collective NBC system, fire/explosion detection/suppression system, bank of smoke grenade launchers mounted either side of the turret and the ability to lay a smoke screen by injecting diesel fuel into the exhaust. The Type 85-III MBT has more recently been offered fitted with a Global Positioning System. To extend the operational range of the Type 85-III MBT, drum-type long-range fuel tanks can be fitted at the rear.

    Variants

    No variants have been announced although NORINCO has stated that the Type 85-III MBT can be modified into a command post vehicle.

    SPECIFICATIONS :

    Crew: 3
    Combat weight: 41,700 kg
    Power-to-weight ratio: 23.98 hp/tonne
    Length:
    (gun forward) 10.428 m*
    (gun rear) 9.508 m*
    Width: 3.40 m
    Height: 2.20 m
    Max road speed: 65 km/h
    Max range: 600 km (approx)
    Fording: 5 m
    Engine: V-type diesel developing 1,000 hp
    Transmission: planetary with 7 forward and 1 reverse gears
    Armament:
    (main) 1 x 125 mm gun
    (coaxial) 1 x 7.62 mm MG
    (anti-aircraft) 1 x 12.7 mm MG
    Smoke grenade dischargers: 2 x 6
    Smoke laying capability: yes
    Ammunition:
    (main) 42 x 125 mm
    Turret traverse: 360, powered/manual
    Gun stabiliser:
    (vertical) yes
    (horizontal) yes
    Rangefinding device: yes, laser
    NBC system: yes
    Night vision equipment: yes
    *Including long-range fuel tanks at hull rear.