T-80UD MBT

Development

The T-84 MBT has been developed by the Khar'kov Morozov Design Bureau (previously the A A Morozov Design Bureau) which is in the Ukraine, with production being undertaken by the Malyshev Plant, also in the Ukraine. This facility developed the T-64 MBT and produced some 8,000 vehicles for the Soviet Army. This was never exported and is not often seen in public. The T-64 was followed by the improved T-64A and then the T-64B (1976). Subsequently the Malyshev Factory also undertook production of the diesel-powered T-80UD (1986) MBT but, with the break-up of the Soviet Union, production of this ceased around 1989/1991 as about 70 per cent of the MBT was imported from other parts of the country such as the turret, hull, gun and some key electronic components. In 1993, the Ukraine took a decision to develop the T-80UD further and this resulted in the T-84 MBT. According to the manufacturer, some 98 per cent of the T-84 is now manufactured in the Ukraine and it is planned to increase this to the full 100 per cent. The T-84 is based on a T-80UD (this being powered by a more fuel-efficent diesel engine rather than a gas-turbine engine) fitted with a new turret of all-welded construction rather than the cast steel turret which was previously imported from Russia. The T-80 was designed jointly by the Leningrad Kirov Plant and the Khar'kov Malyshev Plant. Production of the T-80UD powered by a 1,250 hp gas turbine continues at Omsk but has ceased at Leningrad (St Petersburg). At Khar'kov only the T-80UD powered by the 6TD diesel developing 1,000 hp had been produced. A total of nine T-84 MBTs has been built, of which five still exist, with the remainder being expended during the extensive trials programme. The plant currently has the capability to build at least 150 MBTs a year, although this can quickly be increased. The T-80UD (1,000 hp) and T-84 (1,200 hp) have been demonstrated twice in Pakistan, most recently in 1995 when both tanks were fitted with a French SAGEM thermal gunner's sight. The main export thrust is for the T-80UD as these could be provided very quickly with a complete spare parts and training package. One potential market being pursued is Malaysia which has a requirement for a new MBT, although competition for this is intense. While sales of the T-84 and T-80UD will help keep the Malyshev Tank Plant busy, work is also required for the associated Khar'kov Morozov Design Bureau which designed the T-64, T-80UD and T-84 MBTs. It is understood that a new MBT is being designed at the Khar'kov Morozov Design Bureau which, like the tank and engine facilities, is still owned by the government. No details of this are available, although it could well be an unconventional design with a large calibre gun.

In August 1996, Pakistan placed an order with the Ukraine for the supply of 320 T-80UD MBTs with the first batch of 15 vehicles being delivered in March 1997 and with the second batch of 35 following in mid-1997. These are from the stock of 52 T-80UD tanks which were built several years ago but not delivered. The T-80UD production line has now started again in the Ukraine to enable the remainder of the Pakistani MBT order to be met. In mid-1997, it was not clear as to whether the Ukraine was in a position to build all the subsystems of the T-80UD. The Kharkov Morozov Design Bureau/Malyshev Plant has developed an upgrade package for the T-72 called the T-72AG and details of this are given in the following entry. This vehicle was shown for the first time in early 1997.

Description

In many respects the T-84 is similar in layout to the T-80 MBT covered in detail under the Russian Federation, with the driver's compartment at the front, turret in the centre and the power pack at the rear. The manufacturer claims that the armour protection of the T-84, which includes explosive reactive armour for the turret and chassis, is superior to that fitted to the T-72 and T-80. The explosive reactive armour gives protection against both chemical energy and kinetic energy attack. The driver is seated at the front of the hull in the centre and is provided with a single-piece hatch cover and three periscopes for forward observation. The gunner is seated on the left of the new turret and commander on the right, both being provided with a roof hatch. It is understood that the turret consists of multiple layers of steel and non-metallic armour with six layers on the front and five on the sides. Main armament comprises a 125 mm KBA-3 smoothbore gun fitted with a thermal sleeve and fume extractor. This is fed by an automatic loader which is similar to that installed in the T-64 in that the separate loading ammunition is stowed vertically whereas that of the T-72 and T-80 is stowed horizontally. The T-84 has a total of 28 rounds (projectile and charge) of ready use ammunition which can be of up to six different types including APFSDS, HE-FRAG, HEAT, laser-guided projectile and two natures of HE with a timed fuze (delayed detonation). It is claimed that the 125 mm gun can fire 7 to 9 rds/min, two to three guided missiles or four delayed detonation protectiles. Once the gun has been fired it returns to its pre-assigned loading position where the projectile and then the charge is loaded. It then returns to its previously laid position. It takes between 7 and 12.5 seconds to load a new projectile and charge and return the gun to the firing position.

The 125 mm smoothbore gun barrel can be changed without the need to remove the gun from the tank. It is also provided with a special clearance device for the barrel in the gun cradle. In addition, servicing of the recoil system has been simplified by installing indicators on the recoil absorbers and recuperator. The T-84 fires the same types of ammunition as the Russian T-72 and T-80, including the laser beam-riding guided missile, details of which are given in detail in their respective entries earlier in this section. A 7.62 mm PKT machine gun is mounted coaxially with the main armament and the commander is provided with a 12.7 mm NSVT machine gun for use in the ground/air and ground/ground roles which can be laid and fired under complete armour protection. The 12.7 mm machine gun has an elevation of +70 and a depression of -5. Mounted on either side of the turret is a bank of six electrically operated smoke grenade dischargers which, unlike the Russian T-72/T-80, are provided with a cowl. The T-84 can also lay its own smoke screen by injecting diesel fuel in the exhaust. The T-84 is also fitted with the Shtora-1 vehicle protection system which has also been fitted to the Russian T-90 MBT and some versions of the T-80. This increases the survivability of the T-84 by decoying away incoming ATGWs.

The T-84 is fitted with the same 1A45 fire-control system as the T-80U and T-80UD and either the commander or gunner can lay the main armament while the tank is stationary or moving with a high first round hit probability. The commander has a TKN-4S Agat day/night vertically stabilised sight while the gunner has an IG46 Irtysh day sight that also incorporates a laser rangefinder and a missile guidance capability. The gunner's Buran-E day/night sight is stabilised in the vertical plane only. Thermal night vision equipment is optional on the T-84. The commander's and gunner's day/night system is an integrated part of the fire-control system and, according to the manufacturer, provides the following degree of accuracy:

Laser guided missiles out to 5,000 m (day)
Conventional tank rounds out to 2,500 m (day)
Night out to 1,200 m (Buran-E system)
Night out to 3,000 m (thermal imager)
The computerised analogue/digital fire-control system lays the gun onto the target after taking into account all the inputs from the sensors including tank and target speed, cant, windspeed, ambient temperature, projectile and charge temperature, barrel wear and so on. It also computes the time when the HE projectile with controlled detonation should be detonated over the target. The ballistic computer is designated the 1V528 while the gun stabilisation system is designated the 2E42.

TShU-1-7 Shtora-1 EOCMDAS

The Shtora-1 EOCMDAS (electro-optical counter-measures defensive aids suite) is one of the several unique features of Russian MBTs that distinguish them from the rest of the world. It was developed by VNII Transmash in St.Petersburg in cooperation with Elers-Elektron in Moscow, and introduced somewhere around 1988. This system effectively protects an MBT against the two most common ATGW types: wire-guided SACLOS systems (e.g. TOW, HOT) and laser-guided ATGMs (e.g. Hellfire, Copperhead). Shtora-1 consists of a specialized computer/control panel, two electro-optical interference emitters located on each side of the gun, four laser sensors located on top of the turret, and racks of dedicated anti-laser smoke grenades. The Shtora has two combat roles. In the first role, it works against IR guided ATGMS, by aligning the turret front to the incoming ATGM and using IR emitters to send false signals which scramble the ATGM guidance system. The principle involved is the following. Wire-guided missiles such as the American TOW are guided to the target by means of a wire and a flare on the back of the missile. The flare is used to keep a 'reference point' of the missile in relationship to the target lock held by the operator, and the guidance computer tries to put the flare on the reference point. Shtora emitters create a large hotspot, essentially tricking the missile guidance into following the Shtora hotspot instead of the flare hotspot, resulting in faulty course corrections by the ATGW computer. In fact, the computer shall usually believe that no horisontal course correction is necessary since the false flare comes from the same direction as the targeted tank, while vertical corrections shall cause ATGM to either dive into the ground or climb into the sky, depending on whether the operator holds the lock below or above the emitters. The second part of the system defeats laser guided weapons. When a laser beam is detected the Shtora informs the crew with light and sound; it then launches laser defeating smoke grenades, which enshroud the tank and break or degrade the lock. The tank commander can also press a button that will turn the turret front to the laser to meet incoming ATGM with the best protected section and to engage the laser beam source with the maingun.

The power pack is at the rear and consists of a model 6TD-2 diesel developing 1,200 hp with a 1,500 hp version currently under development, coupled to a new mechanical transmission with seven forward and one reverse gears. An APU is mounted at the rear of the hull on the left side. The air inlet allows air to be ducted from the least dusty quarter and enables water obstacles to be crossed to a water depth of 1.8 m without preparation. There are two parts to the air filtration system, the centrifugal precleaners and the air cleaner casing. This enables the tank to be operated in hot and dusty conditions for up to 1,000 km without a change of filters and to carry out combat under radioactive conditions.

The 1,500 hp engine version, currently under development, is designated the 6TD-3 and features intermediate cooling of the supercharged air. The suspension is of the torsion bar type with each side having six dual rubber-tyred roadwheels with the idler at the front, drive sprocket at the rear and track-return rollers. The upper part of the suspension is covered by a skirt, the forward part of which is armoured. A rubber mat hangs at the front of the vehicle and this helps to keep down dust. Standard equipment includes an NBC system, night vision equipment for commander, gunner and driver, provision for deep fording, fire detection/suppression system, radiation shielding and a dozer blade mounted under the front of the hull. It can also be fitted with various types of mineclearing system at the front of the hull including the KMT-6 plough-type system. Mounted at the rear of the hull is an unditching beam and two long-range fuel tanks. One of the options being offered for the export market is an air conditioning system. SPECIFICATIONS :

Crew: 3
Combat weight: 46,000 kg
Power-to-weight ratio: 26.08 hp/t
Ground pressure: 0.93 kg/cm{2}
Length:
(gun forward) 9.664 m
(hull) 7.705 m
Width:
(over tracks) 3.595 m
(with skirts) 3.775 m
Height:
(turret roof) 2.215 m
(including 12.7 mm MG) 2.76 m
Ground clearance: 0.515 m
Track width: 580 mm
Track: 2.8 m
Length of track on ground: 4.29 m
Max road speed: 65 km/h
Average cross-country speed: 45-50 km/h
Fuel capacity: 1,300 litres
Range:
(road) 540 km
(cross-country) 350-400 km
Fording:
(without preparation) 1.8 m
(with preparation) 5.0 m
Gradient: 63%
Side slope: 36%
Vertical obstacle: 1.0 m
Trench: 2.85 m
Engine: Model 6TD-2 twin-stroke, multi-fuel, liquid-cooled 6-cylinder diesel, fuel injected, developing 1,200 hp
Transmission: mechanical, epicycle train with 7 forward and 1 reverse gears
Steering: clutch and brake
Suspension: torsion bar
Electrical system: 27 V
Armament:
(main) 1 x 125 mm KBA-3 gun
(coaxial) 1 x 7.62 mm PKT MG
(anti-aircraft) 1 x 12.7 mm NSVT MG
Ammunition:
(main) 43 (28 in automatic loader)
(coaxial) 1,250
(anti-aircraft) 450
Smoke grenade launchers: 2 x 6
Gun control equipment
Turret power control: electric/manual
Turret traverse: 360
Gun elevation/depression:
(turret front) +13 30'/-5 40'
(turret rear) +16 40'/-2 20'
Gun stabiliser:
(vertical) yes
(horizontal) yes
Rangefinder: yes, laser
NBC system: yes
Night vision equipment: yes

T-80UK Command Tank

This is the command version of the T-80U MBT and has the following additional features:

(1) Communications equipment consisting of UHF station, UHF receiver, HF station, UHF and HF aerials and an 11 m telescopic mast
(2) Navigation equipment consisting of TNA 4-3 position indicator, plotting board, gyro course indicator, control panel and aiming circle
(3) 1 kW auxiliary generating unit
(4) Installation of TShU1-7 Shtora-1 countermeasures system which is covered in the entry for the T-90 MBT
(5) Internally the T-80UK also features a modernised fire-control system, aiming sight, ballistic computer, commander's hatch control unit, loading mechanism and banks of smoke grenade launchers either side of the turret.

Due to the additional amount of communications equipment carried, this version only carries 30 rounds of 125 mm ammunition.

Status

Production. 320 T-80UD in service with Pakistan, first deliveries early 1997

COMPANY NAME : Kirov Works, Leningrad